We live in a time of daily breach notifications. One recently affected organization in Germany put out a statement
which said: “The incident is not attributable to security deficiencies.” and “Human error can also be ruled out.” They went on say that it is “virtually impossible to provide viable protection against organized, highly professional hacking attacks.” It’s a tough climate we find ourselves in. It just feels too hard or impossible at times. And there’s some truth to that. There are way too many potential attack vectors for comfort.
Many breaches occur in ways that make it difficult to pinpoint exactly what might have prevented it. Or, the companies involved hide details about what actually happened or how. In some cases, they lie. They might claim there was some Advanced Persistent Threat on the network when in reality, it was a simple phishing attack where credentials were simply handed over.
In one recent case, a third party vendor apparently uploaded a database file to an unsecured Amazon AWS server. A media outlet covering the story called out that it was not hacking because the data was made so easily available. Numerous checkpoints come to mind that each could have prevented or lessened the damage in this scenario. I’d like to paint a picture of the numerous layers of defense that should be in place to help prevent this type of exposure.
Layer 1: Removing Production Data
The data should have been long removed from the database.
Assuming this is a non-production database (and I sure hope it is), it should have been fully masked before it was even saved as a file. Masking data means completely removing the original sensitive data and replacing it with fake data that looks and acts real. This enables safe use of the database for app development, QA, and testing. Data can be masked as it’s exported from the production database (most secure) or in a secure staging environment after the initial export. Had this step been done, the database could safely be placed on an insecure AWS server with limited security concerns because there’s no real data. An attacker could perhaps use the DB schema or other details to better formulate an attack on the production data, so I’m not recommending posting masked databases publicly, but the risk of data loss is severely limited once the data is masked.
Layer 2: Secure Cloud Server Configuration
The researcher should never have been able to get to the file.
A security researcher poking around the web should never have been able to access this database file. Proper server configuration and access controls should prevent unauthorized access to any files (including databases). In addition to documenting proper security configuration, certain Cloud Security Access Brokers can be used to continuously monitor AWS instances to ensure that server configurations match the corporate guidelines. Any instances of configuration drift can be auto-remediated with these solutions to ensure that humans don’t accidentally misconfigure servers or miss security settings in the course of daily administration.
Layer 3: Apply Database Encryption
Even with access to the database file, the researcher should not have been able to access the data.
At-rest data encryption that is built into the database protects sensitive data against this type of scenario. Even if someone has the database file, if it were encrypted, the file would essentially be useless. An attacker would have to implement an advanced crypto attack which would take enormous resources and time to conduct and is, for all intents and purposes, impractical. Encryption is a no-brainer. Some organizations use disk-layer encryption, which is OK in the event of lost or stolen disk. However, if a database file is moved to an unencrypted volume, it is no longer protected. In-database encryption improves security because the security stays with the file regardless of where it’s moved or exported. The data remains encrypted and inaccessible without the proper encryption keys regardless of where the database file is moved.
Layer 4: Apply Database Administrative Controls
Even with administrative permissions to the database, the researcher should not have been able to access the sensitive data.
I’m not aware of similar capabilities outside of Oracle database, but Oracle Database Vault would have also prevented this breach by implementing access controls within the database. Database Vault effectively segregates roles (enforces Separation of Duties) so that even an attacker with DBA permissions and access to the database file and encryption keys cannot run queries against the sensitive application data within the database because their role does not allow it. This role-based access, enforced within the database, is an extremely effective control to avoid accidental access that may occur throughout the course of daily database administration.
Layer 5: Protect Data Within the Database
Even with full authorization to application data, highly sensitive fields should be protected within the database.
Assuming all of the other layers break down and you have full access to the unencrypted database file and credentials that are authorized to access the sensitive application data, certain highly sensitive fields should be protected via application-tier encryption. Social Security Numbers and Passwords, for example, shouldn’t be stored in plain text. By applying protection for these fields at the app layer, even fully authorized users wouldn’t have access. We all know that passwords should be hashed so that the password field is only useful to the individual user who enters their correct password. But other fields, like SSN, can be encrypted at the app layer to protect against accidental exposure (human error), intentional insider attack, or exposed credentials (perhaps via phishing attack).
Maybe the vendor didn’t follow the proper protocols instituted by the organization. Maybe they made a human error; we all make mistakes. But, that’s why a layered approach to database security is critical on any database instances where sensitive production data resides. Security protocols shouldn’t require humans to make the right decisions. They should apply security best practices by default and without option.
Assuming this was a non-production database, any sensitive data should have been fully masked/replaced before it was even made available. And, if it was a production DB, database encryption and access control protections that stay with the database during export or if the database file is moved away from an encrypted volume should have been applied. The data should have been protected before the vendor’s analyst ever got his/her hands on it. Oracle Database Vault would have prevented even a DBA-type user from being able to access the sensitive user data that was exposed here. These are not new technologies; they’ve been around for many years with plentiful documentation and industry awareness.
Unfortunately, a few of the early comments I read on this particular event were declarations or warnings about how this proves that cloud is less secure than on-premises deployments. I don’t agree. Many cloud services are configured with security by default and offer far more protection than company-owned data centers. Companies should seek cloud services that enable security by default and that offer layered security controls; more security than their own data centers. It’s more than selecting the right Cloud Service Provider. You also need to choose the right service; one that matches the specific needs (including security needs) of your current project. The top CSPs offer multiple IaaS and/or PaaS options that may meet the basic project requirements. While cloud computing grew popular because it’s easy and low cost, ease-of-use and cost are not always the most important factors when choosing the right cloud service. When sensitive data is involved, security needs to be weighed heavily when making service decisions.
I’ll leave you with this. Today’s computing landscape is extremely complex and constantly changing. But security controls are evolving to address what has been called the extended enterprise (which includes cloud computing and user mobility among other characteristics). Don’t leave security in the hands of humans. And apply security in layers to cover as many potential attack vectors as possible. Enable security by default and apply automated checks to ensure that security configuration guidelines are being followed.
Note: Some of the content above is based on my understanding of Oracle security products (encryption, masking, CASB, etc.) Specific techniques or advantages mentioned may not apply to other vendors’ similar solutions.
from Layered Database Security in the age of Data Breaches